The Kremlin said Putin had called Rouhani to discuss the Syrian crisis as well as a new round of talks about the nuclear standoff that is set to begin in Geneva on Wednesday.
“Putin stressed that a real chance has now emerged for finding a solution to this longstanding problem,” the Kremlin said in a statement.
The Kremlin added that Rouhani gave a “high grade” to Russia’s role at the so-called P5+1 negotiations that besides Iran include the five permanent UN Security Council members and Germany.
The last round of talks between Iran and world powers earlier this month come tantalisingly close to finding a framework agreement that would have suspended some elements of Tehran’s disputed programme in exchange for partial sanctions relief.
The terms of the potential deal have been vehemently opposed by Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and some powerful members of the US Congress.
Netanyahu — who views a partial suspension of sanctions as detrimental to the negotiations — outlined his opposition to the agreement during talks with French President Francois Hollande on Sunday.
The Israeli head of state will continue his diplomatic offensive when he meets Putin in Moscow on Wednesday and receives US Secretary of State John Kerry on Friday.